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Development history of printing press

Update time : 2020-06-30

Source : Zhejiang Deguang Machinery Co.,Ltd

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Development history of printing press

  The invention and development of the printing press play an important role in the spread of human civilization and culture.

  In 1439, Gutenberg, Germany manufactured a wooden letterpress printing machine. Although this vertical spiral hand-pull printing machine has a simple structure, it has been used for 300 years; in 1812, Germany’s Konig made the first Taiwan flattened letterpress printing machine; in 1847, Hoy of the United States invented the rotary printing machine; in 1900, made a six-color rotary printing machine; in 1904, the American Rubel invented the offset printing machine.

  Before the 1950s, the traditional letterpress printing process occupied a dominant position in the printing industry, and the development of printing presses was also dominated by letterpress printing presses. However, the lead alloy relief printing process has the disadvantages of high labor intensity, long production cycle, and environmental pollution. Since the 1960s, lithographic offset printing processes with short cycles and high productivity have begun to emerge and develop. Lead alloy relief printing has been gradually replaced by lithographic offset printing. Flexographic printing, stencil printing, electrostatic printing, inkjet printing, etc. have also been developed in packaging printing and advertising printing.

  The world's printing machinery has made great progress since the 1980s. For more than 20 years, the development of printing machinery has gone through three stages:

  The first stage is from the early 1980s to the early 1990s, this stage is the heyday of the development of offset printing technology. During this period, the maximum printing speed of sheet-fed offset printing presses is 10,000 prints/hour. The pre-adjustment preparation time of a four-color printing machine before printing is generally about 2 hours. The automatic control of the printing machine mainly focuses on automatic paper binding, automatic paper collection, automatic cleaning, automatic detection of ink color, automatic adjustment of ink volume and remote control of registration. During this period, in addition to single-color and two-color machines, almost every sheet-fed offset printing machine manufacturer also has the ability to manufacture four-color machines. Most manufacturers are capable of manufacturing paper reversing mechanisms for double-sided printing.

  The second stage is from the early 1990s to the late 20th century. In the 1990s, with the sheet-fed offset printing machine as the symbol, the design and manufacturing level of printing machinery in the world took a big step forward. Compared with the first-stage model, the speed of the new-generation model has been further improved, from 10,000 prints/hour to 15,000 prints/hour, and the pre-adjustment time before printing has also been greatly reduced from about 2 hours in the first stage to 15 minutes. about. The automation level and production efficiency of the machine are also greatly improved.

  Since entering the 21st century, printing machinery has ushered in the third stage of development. Some models of sheet-fed offset printing presses can reach 17000-18000 printings/hour, but manufacturers do not strive to increase the maximum printing speed of printing presses, but through the application of information technology, further shorten the pre-press preparation time and replacement The time of living parts pursues higher production efficiency.

  In the automation of printing machinery, technologies such as networking, production integration, digital workflow, and links to management information systems (MIS) have become the focus of development. Heidelberg's CP2000 automatic control system is in addition to the whole machine from paper feeding, paper feeding and guiding, ink feeding, water feeding, plate changing, registering, cleaning, drying, glazing coating, dusting and receiving paper. In addition to presetting, controlling and fault diagnosis in the work link, it also has the functions of realizing the networking of all production processes of the printing enterprise and online transmission of pre-press image processing data (CIP3/PPF or CIP4/JDF data). In the new century, most offset press manufacturers have developed corresponding DI digital presses.

  In addition, in order to meet people's demand for high-end color prints, 8-color group or even 10-color group multi-color group double-sided printing, additional online printing post-processing functions have become various sheet-fed offset presses (including small offset presses, DI direct Plate-making machine and large offset printing machine), and the technology is maturing, this type of printing machine has begun to squeeze a part of the market that originally belonged to the web printing machine.